Types of Emissions

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Types of EmissionsCement is an important constituent for construction purpose; hence cement industries are widely spread in all countries. As every industry has some effects on environment, similarly cement industry emits various gases that have a huge impact on our environment. The emissions from cement industry can be categorized into two parts:ParticulatesGaseousFirst, gaseous emissions, which are emitted at a large extend from cement industry as a product of combustion of fuels and include harmful gases like oxides of Sulphur (SO2, SO3, SO), Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, N2O), Carbon oxides (CO2, CO) and volatile organic compounds.Second type consists of particulate matter that includes fine dust particles e.g. Cement dust, measured in micrometer.Sox:-Sulfur oxides are formed from fuels that contain Sulphur. The most common oxide formed is SO2 which is colorless and a foul odor. Its presence can very well be sensed by smelling at a concentration between 1000-3000µg/m3. This oxide gets mixed with water vapors in the environment forming a harmful compound H2SO3. Other oxide SO3 is sometimes released directly or produced from transformation of SO2.NOX:-In cement manufacturing, condition favorable for formation of nitrogen oxides are reached routinely because of high process temperature. Most of NOX emissions are generated in cement kilns.NOX emissions are formed during combustion of fuel during two main processes:-Oxidation of molecular nitrogen present in the combustion air which is termed as thermal NOX.Oxidation of nitrogen compound present in fuel which is termed as fuel NOX.Particulate Matter Emission:-Particulate matter is mainly the suspended dust particles that remain in the atmosphere. In cement industry they are released during processes like grinding, crushing and burning of raw materials of metals like chromium, nickel, aluminum, barium, lead, etc. The physical properties of the particles decide the extent of effect on health. Particulate matter emission consists of sub-micron and micron from anthropogenic and natural sources. According to the WHO survey, around 6% deaths in Austria, France and Switzerland are due to particulate air pollution. Exposure of cement dust for a short period is not harmful but prolonged exposure cause serious damage to plants and animals. Exposure of cement particles dissolve leaf tissues , reduce growth, reduce chlorophyll, clogged stomata in leaves, interrupt absorption of light and diffusion of gases, lowering starch formation and fruit setting. Increase in the concentration of heavy metals by cement industry effect the productivity of plants.Carbon Dioxide (CO2):-Carbon dioxide is the maximum released emission in cement industry and its reduction is of prime importance. Carbon dioxide is formed in cement industry in two ways:-As a byproduct of a chemical conversion process used in the production of clinker. Equation ruling this process is:- CaCO3 +heat → CaO+ CO2 During the combustion of fossil fuels and from surrounding.CO2 emission from cement industry comprises of around 2.4% of the total CO2 emission as suggested by IPCC report. There are many measures set up by the IPCC which are taken as a standard for comparing the amount of CO2 to be released. Cement kiln dust correction factor* production rate = CO2 emission from clinker.If the industry is not aware of the production rate, then back calculations are done from the produced cement to calculate the production rate.There are two types of cements that are produced:-Portland cementMasonry cementAs at the upper end of kiln, (low temperature) CO2 is produced during calcination and at lower end CaO at high temperature reacts with silica, aluminum to form minerals in clinker. This clinker is mixed with 5% gypsum to produce the desired Portland cement. Masonry on the other hand uses more amount of CaO which in turn increases the level of CO2 in the lower side of kiln. Hence masonry cement is used less in comparison with Portland cement. Impact of Cement Industry On EnvironmentThe production of cement involves the consumption of many raw materials, energy which causes emission of gases and solid particles. These emissions effects our health and also hazardous to the environment leading to water and air pollution. The main gaseous emission that is of great threat is carbon dioxide. Cement manufacturing is under close scrutiny because of the emission of CO2 at large extent. CO2 emission from cement industry contributes about 6-7% of the total emission from industrial sector. Carbon emission these days has increased at a great extent leading to increase in level of global warming. Many steps are taken to reduce these emissions but reduction is limited due to formation of carbon dioxide in the basic process of calcination. According to the IPPC report following are the emissions that account for air pollution:-oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and other nitrogen compounds, • Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other Sulphur compounds dust, • Total organic compounds (TOC) including volatile organic compounds (VOC), • Polychlorinated dib Enzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs), • Metals and their compounds, • Hydrogen fluoride (HF), • Hydrogen chloride (HCl), • Carbon monoxide (CO).Cement industry also generated tons of waste like dust particles in kilns each year. These dust particles causes many respiratory and health problems. Air pollution has impact on both human beings and animals, damages vegetation, soil fertility and affect not only the metropolitan areas but also the medium size urban areas. Air pollution also disturbs the natural ecosystem. Climatic change is also one of the consequences of air pollution. Emission of gases has immediate and long term effect on quantity and quality of agriculture. It has being seen that people of cement industry are badly affected from respiratory disorders, gastro intestine diseases, etc. chronic impairment of lungs and skin allergies problems are also being faced by humans working in these industries. Cement deposition in the respiratory tracts causes a basic reaction leading to increases in the PH that irritates the mucous membranes. Its effects are not only on respiratory organs but also on cardio vascular organs. It inturn reduces the life expectancy of the average population. Animals like buffalos and cattles , paultry are also being effect by respiratory and many other health problems , which is effecting the overall GDP of india ,as livestock plays a vital role in the GDP.Human health Probloms:-respiratoy :-lung cough, chest tightens, impairment of lung function,pneumoconiosis, carcinoma of lungs, obstruction and restriction lung desieases. Gastro intestinal system:-Oral cavity , loss of tooth surface, liver diffuse, mechanical trauma.Stomach :-Stomachache and cancer.Central nervous system:-Headache and fatigue.Allergic reaction that interfere with respiaration :-Alllergic reaction which causes many respiratory problms from running nose to life threating problems. Immune system becomes weak and responds to harmless allergies. Complication can occur for a person who is extremely sensitive to allergies like pollen ,food, household pollutantsand animal secreation.Chronic brochities:-Bronchial tree is being effected by chronic bronchitis. Bronchial tree is made of tubes that carry air, get infected , swell up and mocus forms which make hard for a person to breath.Asthma:-It is a condition of partial blockage of inflow and outflow of lungs by swelling ,muscle squeezing and mocus formation. Asthma attacks are caused which are becoming very normal these days due to the pollution that id being created by these industries.Lung Cancer:-A change of 1% of particulate matter in the atmostphere causes 14% more chance of population being effected by lung cancer. Also the ultra size of the particles effect at alarge


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